Prakata Blogger

Blog ini dibuat untuk membantu kalangan pendidik untuk menyalurkan bakat menuslinya dalam dunia pendidikan, yang nantinya tulisan tersebut dapat bermanfaat bagi yang membutuhkannya. Dan blog ini akan membuat seluruh materi pendidikan yang juga link dengan website lain

Rabu, 02 April 2003


By Julie High
Roundtable is one of the cooperative learning techniques that can develop students’ ability in vocabulary, grammatical structures, and writing skills.
Roundtable structures can be used to brainstorm ideas and to generate a large number of responses to a single question or a group of questions.
Faculty poses question.
·         One piece of paper and pen per group.
·         First student writes one response, and says it out loud.
·         First student passes paper to the left, second student writes response, etc.
·         Continues around group until time elapses.
·         Students may say "pass" at any time.
·         Group stops when time is called.

The key here is the question or the problem you've asked the students to consider. It has to be one that has the potential for a number of different "right" answers. Relate the question to the course unit, but keep it simple so every student can have some input.

Once time is called, determine what you want to have the students do with the lists...they may want to discuss the multitude of answers or solutions or they may want to share the lists with the entire class.

Minggu, 20 Januari 2002

Kagan Cooperative Learning Structures that Promote Second Language Learning

From Second Language Learning through Cooperative Learning
by Julie High

Cooperative Learning Structures that promote learning vocabulary:
1.     Guess-The Fib
2.     Inside-Outside Circle
3.     Line-Ups
4.     Match Mine
5.     Numbered Heads Together
6.     Rallytable
7.     Roundrobin
8.     Roundtable/Roundrobin
9.     Same-Different
10.   Send-A-Problem
11.   Team Collage
12.   Team Draw
13.   Where Am I?

Cooperative Learning Structures that help students apply grammatical conventions:
1.     Numbered Heads Together
2.     Pairs Check
3.     Roundtable
4.     Send-A-Problem
5.     Three-Step Interview
6.     Turn Toss

Cooperative Learning Structures that help students develop writing skills:
1.     4-S Brainstorming
2.     Line-Ups
3.     Pairs Check
4.     Roundtable/Roundrobin
5.     Story Scramble

Descriptions of Cooperative Learning Structures
1.      Guess-the-Fib
This can be played either within teams or within the class.  When played within teams, participants try to fool their teammates; when played within the class, teams try to fool other teams.  The idea is simple.  In Guess-the Fib, students state two rather unbelievable facts and one unbelievable fib.  They announce all three as facts, and it is the job of the teammates or other teams to guess which one is the fib.  Finger responses can be used with Guess-the-Fib.  Students simply hold up one, two or three fingers, depending on which statement they believe is the fib.

2.      Inside-Outside Circle
Students stand in pairs in two concentric circles. The inside circle faces out; the outside circle faces in. Students use flash cards or respond to teacher questions as they rotate to each new partner. Good for:
·         Checking for understanding, review, processing, helping
·         Tutoring, sharing, meeting classmates

3.      Line-Ups
·      Participants line up according to the same pre-established criteria….for example, by birth date (month, year).
·      Lineups can be used to make small groups (count off by four’s, etc.) and can be used to promote communication and develop concepts.

  1. Value Line
·      One way to form heterogeneous groups is to use a value line.
·      Present an issue or topic to the group and ask each member to determine how they feel about the issue (could use a 1-10 scale; 1 being strong agreement, 10 being strong disagreement).
·      Form a rank-ordered line and number the participants from 1 up (from strong agreement to strong disagreement, for example).
·      Form your groups of four by pulling one person from each end of the value line and two people from the middle of the group (for example, if you had 20 people, one group might consist of persons 1, 10, 11, 20).

5.      Match Mine
Students attempt to match the arrangement of objects on a grid of another student using oral communication only. Good for:
·         Vocabulary development
·         Communication skills, role-taking ability

6.      Numbered Heads Together
This structure is useful for quickly reviewing objective material in a fun way. The students in each team are numbered (each team might have 4 students numbered 1, 2, 3, 4). Students coach each other on material to be mastered. Teachers pose a question and call a number. Only the students with that number are eligible to answer and earn points for their team, building both individual accountability and positive interdependence. This may be done with only one student in the class responding (sequential form), or with all the numbers, 3's for instance, responding using an Every Pupil Response technique such as cards or hand signals (simultaneous form). (Kagan)

7.      Rallytable
Students are working in pairs, within their teams. Students will take turns writing on one piece of paper or completing a task.

  1. Roundtable

Step 1: The teacher asked a question with many possible answers, such as name all the sports you can, or list any items you can identify in the classroom.
Step 2: Teams have one piece of paper and one pen or pencil that rotate around the team.  Each student writes one answer on the list and passes the pen and paper.  If any student is having difficulty thinking of what to write, the teammates can make suggestions.

  1. Roundrobin is the oral counterpart of Roundtable.  Students take turns around the team contributing answers or reading something they have written. 

  1. Roundtable/Roundrobin
Combine the Teambuilding structures of Roundtable and Roundrobin to make an excellent and often –used Mastery Structure.  Since Roundtable requires a quick pace to maintain student interest, it is best used as a review activity.  As students write the appropriate word, they also need to pronounce it.  This makes the activity Roundrobin at the same time. 

  1. Same-Different
Students try to discover what is the same and different in two pictures, but neither can look at the other's picture.

12.  Send-A-Problem

·      Send-A-Problem can be used as a way to get groups to discuss and review material, or potential solutions to problems related to content information.  
·      Each member of a group generates a problem and writes it down on a card. Each member of the group then asks the question to other members.
·      If the question can be answered and all members of the group agree on the answer, then that answer is written on the back of the card. If there is no consensus on the answer, the question is revised so that an answer can be agreed upon.
·      The group puts a Q on the side of the card with the question on it, and an A on the side of the card with an answer on it.
·      Each group sends its question cards to another group.
·      Each group member takes ones question from the stack of questions and reads one question at a time to the group. After reading the first question, the group discusses it.
·      If the group agrees on the answer, they turn the card over to see if they agree with the first group's answer.
·      If there again is consensus, they proceed to the next question.
·      If they do not agree with the first group's answer, the second group writes their answer on the back of the card as an alternative answer.
·      The second group reviews and answers each question in the stack of cards, repeating the procedure outlined above.
·      The question cards can be sent to a third, fourth, or fifth group, if desired.
·      Stacks of cards are then sent back to the originating group. The sending group can then discuss and clarify any question

Variation: A variation on the send a problem is to use the process to get groups to discuss a real problem for which there may be no one set answer.
·      Groups decide on one problem they will consider. It is best if each group considers a different problem.
·      The same process is used, with the first group brainstorming solutions to a single problem. The problem is written on a piece of paper and attached to the outside of a folder. The solutions are listed and enclosed inside the folder.
·      The folder is then passed to the next group. Each group brainstorms for 3-5 minutes on the problems they receive without reading the previous group's work and then place their solutions inside the folders.
·      This process may continue to one or more groups. The last group reviews all the solutions posed by all of the previous groups and develops a prioritized list of possible solutions. This list is then presented to the group.

  1. Team Collage
When a team presentation could include an art project, students bring magazine pictures, photographs and other items to create a collage together.  On the specified day, teams Roundrobin the articles they have gathered and share why they brought those particular items to contribute to the poster.  Teams discuss a plan for the poster before they begin pasting.  Display the posters as soon as they are created.  Encourage teams to add to their poster in the ensuing days since the synergy of the experience may prompt them to think of more possibilities. 

  1. Team Draw
After vocabulary on a certain them has been presented, teams can create a picture together that they will present orally to the class.  Each team member chooses a different color pen, and any one color can only be put in the picture by the team member who has that pen.  As teams present their drawing to the class, each member contributes one or more sentences to the description.

  1. Who am I? 
Students have a name pinned to their back that they must guess through asking other students questions.  Well-known movie starts, cartoon characters, politicians, different professions and characters from literature or history are good sources.  Make a class list of all the possible names so teams can Roundrobin a list of questions that would help them guess their identity.  Put the class list of questions on the overhead projector or chalkboard for easy reference.

16.  Where am I?
Using vocabulary pictures of common places around town as a reference, teams Roundtable a list of yes/no question they can ask to determine any of the places indicated.  The questions can not name the place specifically. Since all team members will need a copy of the list of questions, have them all copy the questions, or collect them and photocopy the questions for the students for the next day.

Pass out one vocabulary picture to each student with a paper clap.  Have students attach their picture to the back k of another student on a different team without showing them the picture.  After students have the picture on their back, they mill and mingle about the room asking no more than one of their questions of any other student.  When students think they know what the place is on their back, they can stand at the front of the room.  After most students think they know “where they are”, stop the class and have every student ask another the specific question about there they are.

17.  Pairs Check
This is a way to structure pair work on mastery-oriented worksheets. Students work in teams of four with two sets of partners. The worksheet is set up with problems presented in pairs. The first person in each partnership does the first problem with the pair partner serving as coach, and offering exaggerated praise. After the first problem is done, partners change roles. After each pair of problems, teams of four check each others' work and, if they agree, give a team cheer or handshake. In this way students stay on task, working together toward mastery. (Kagan)

18.  Three-step Interview

·      Three-step interviews can be used as an ice breaker for team members to get to know one another or can be used to get to know concepts in depth, by assigning roles to students.
·      Faculty assigns roles or students can "play" themselves. Faculty may also give interview questions or information that should be "found."
·      A interviews B for the specified number of minutes, listening attentively and asking probing questions.
·      At a signal, students reverse roles and B interviews A for the same number of minutes.
·      At another signal, each pair turns to another pair, forming a group of four. Each member of the group introduces his or her partner, highlighting the most interesting points.

  1. Turn Toss
Turn Toss is a fun way for students to practice short, predictable vocabulary words and sentence patterns because they are never sure if their turn is coming next.  Using a piece of paper wadded up like a snowball, one student gives a prompt and tosses the ball to another who must respond.  The second student then tosses it to another and so one following two rules: 1) no send backs- the student must send the ball to a different student that the one who tossed it to them, and 2) change the pattern whenever possible – so that a student never knows for sure if the ball is going to be tossed to them next. 

Any list is great content for Turn Toss:
·      Cardinal numbers
·      Counting by 2’s, 3’s, 5’s, 10’s…
·      Ordinal numbers
·      Days of the week
·      Months of the year
·      Alphabet

20.  Send a Problem
Each student on a team writes a review problem on a flash card. Teams reach consensus on answers and write them on the backs of the cards. Each group's stack of questions passes to another group, which attempts to answer them and checks to see if they agree with the sending group. If not, they write their answer as an alternative. Stacks of cards can be sent to a third and fourth group. Stacks of cards are finally returned to the senders, who may discuss the alternative answers. (Kagan)

  1. 4-S Brainstorming
In 4-S Brainstorming every student on the team has a role to facilitate the creative potential of brainstorming.  The students have gambits to say in the target language that encourage each other:

Ø  Speed
Ø  “Let’s hurry!”
Ø  Silly
Ø  “Let’s get crazy!”
Ø  Synergy
Ø  “Let’s build on that!”
Ø  Support
Ø  “All ideas help!”

All ideas can be written down by one student who is the recorder, or each student can write down his or her own ideas using a small piece of paper for every idea.  As soon as a student writes down one idea, she/he puts the paper in the middle of the team were later it can be categorized with similar ideas.  Crazy ideas stimulate students to be creative and eliminate inhibitions. 

  1. Story Scramble
Select a story appropriate to the proficiency level of the students.  Cut up a copy for each team into 4 strips.  Mix up the strips and place them in an envelope.  Team members each take one strip out of the envelope at a time and read it to the team.  The teams then decide the sequence of the parts in the story.  To increase the difficulty of the activity, select a longer story and cut the story into 8 or 12 strips, or choose a story in which the order of events could vary without changing the outcome.  Each team member can read his or her part of the story as a team presentation.